Translation is the process by which the genetic code is ‘translated’ into the amino acid sequence that makes up a protein. It is a two-stage process; first, a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule is transcribed from the DNA double helix. Next, this mRNA molecule is translated into amino acids. How does the cell translate the information encoded in an mRNA molecule into a chain of amino acids?
Gene expression is one of the most important processes in the biology of a cell. It is the process that ensures that the right proteins are present in the right amount at the right time, so the myriad different cell types in our bodies can carry out their functions. The DNA molecule is used to synthesise RNA, through a process known as transcription.